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Tích lũy tư bản là gì? Bản chất, Quy luật, Nhân tố ảnh hưởng

(Last Updated On: 07/06/2022 by Lytuong.net)

What is capital accumulation? The nature, role and consequences of capital accumulation. Factors affecting the scale of capital accumulation.

1. The essence and motives of capital accumulation

Simple reproduction is not the typical form of capitalism, but its typical form is extended reproduction. Capitalist expanded reproduction is the repetition of production on a larger scale than before, with a larger capital than before. To do so, a part of surplus value must be transformed into additional capital.

The use of surplus value as capital or the transformation of surplus value back into capital is called capital accumulation. Thus, the essence of capital accumulation is the capitalization of surplus value. Specifically, capital accumulation is the reproduction of capital on an ever-expanding scale. The reason surplus value can be transformed into capital is because surplus value already has the material elements of new capital.

The transformation of a part of surplus value back into capital is called capital accumulation.

The expansion of capitalist accumulation and reproduction can be illustrated by the example: the first year the scale of production is 80c + 20v + 20m. Assume 20m is not all consumed by the capitalist for personal use, but is divided into 10m for accumulation and 10m for private consumption by the capitalist. The 10 m portion used for accumulation is divided into 8c + 2v, then next year’s production scale will be 88c + 22v + 22m (if m remains the same). Thus, in the second year, the size of the constant capital and the variable capital both increase, and the surplus value also increases accordingly.

The study of capitalism’s expansion of accumulation and reproduction allows to draw conclusions that more clearly delineate the exploitative nature of capitalist relations of production:

– One is, the sole source of accumulated capital is surplus value, and accumulated capital accounts for an increasingly larger proportion of all capital. Marx said that advance capital is just a drop in the river of accumulation. In the process of reproduction, interest (m) keeps hitting capital, the larger the capital, the greater the profit, so the worker’s labor in the past became a means to exploit the worker himself.

– Two is, the process of accumulation has transformed property rights in the commodity economy into capitalist appropriation. In the production of simple commodities, the exchange between the producers of the commodity on the principle of parity does not essentially lead to one appropriating the unpaid labor of the other. On the contrary, capitalist production leads to the result that the capitalist not only appropriates a part of the worker’s labor, but is also the legal owner of that unpaid labor. But that does not violate the law of value.

The impetus for accumulation and extended reproduction is the absolute economic law of capitalism – the law of surplus value, which states that the capitalist’s production goal is value and the add value. For that purpose, capitalists are constantly accumulating to expand production, seeing it as a basic means to intensify the exploitation of wage workers.

On the other hand, competition forces capitalists to continuously increase their capital by rapidly increasing accumulated capital.

2. Factors affecting the scale of capital accumulation

For a given quantity of surplus-value, the size of capital accumulation depends on the ratio of the division of that surplus-value into the capitalist’s accumulation and consumption funds, but if the If that division is determined, the size of capital accumulation depends on the amount of surplus value. Therefore, the factors affecting the volume of surplus value are also the factors that determine the size of capital accumulation. Those factors are:

-The level of exploitation of surplus value

Capitalists raise the level of exploitation of labor by undercutting wages. In studying the production of surplus value, Marx assumed that the exchange between workers and capitalists was an exchange of parity, that is, wages equal to the value of labor power. But in reality, workers are not only appropriation of surplus labor by the capitalist, but also of a necessary part of labor, i.e., withholding wages, in order to increase capital accumulation.

The capitalists also raise the level of exploitation of labor power by increasing the intensity of labor and prolonging the working day to increase the volume of surplus value, thereby increasing capital accumulation. The advantage here is also reflected in the fact that the capitalist does not need to advance more capital to buy more machinery and equipment, but only needs to advance capital to buy more raw materials to be able to increase the volume of production and make full use of it. capacity of machinery and equipment, should reduce invisible wear and tear and maintenance costs of machinery and equipment.

– Social Labor Productivity Level

As the social labor productivity increases, the prices of the means of production and the means of consumption decrease. This reduction has two consequences for accumulation: one iswith a certain amount of surplus value, the part devoted to accumulation may encroach on the consumption part, while the consumption of the capitalist does not decrease but can still be equal to or higher than before; two isa certain amount of surplus value for accumulation can also be transformed into a larger volume of means of production and additional labor power than before.

The progress of science and technology has created many additional factors for accumulation through the use of new materials and created new uses for existing materials as wastes in production and consumption. individuals of society, things that have no inherent value. Final, Increasing labor productivity will cause the value of old capital to reappear in a new useful form as quickly as possible.

– The growing disparity between using capital and consumer capital

In the production process, labor materials (machinery, equipment) are fully involved in the production process, but they only wear out gradually, so their value is gradually transferred to the product. So there is a difference between using capital and consuming capital. Although it has gradually lost its value, the machine will still have the same effect as it did when it had enough value during its lifetime. Therefore, excluding the part of the value of the machine transferred to the product from time to time, the machine serving for free is no different from a force of nature.

The more modern the machinery and equipment, the greater the gap between the capital used and the capital consumed, so the greater the unpaid service of the machine, the more capitalist can take advantage of the achievements of labor. the past more. That unpaid service of past labor is due to living labor taking hold and making them work. They are accumulated with the increasing scale of capital accumulation. This can be illustrated with the following data:

Machine generation Machine value (million USD) Product production capacity (million units) Depreciation per product (USD) Difference between capital in use and capital in consumption (USD) Accumulation capacity increased compared to the 1 generation machine
I ten first ten 9,99,990
II 14 2 7 13,999,993 2 million SP x (10 – 7) = 6 million USD
III 18 3 6 17,999,994 3 million SP x (10 – 6) = 12 million USD

– Scale of advance capital

With the level of exploitation unchanged, the amount of surplus value is determined by the volume of variable capital. Therefore, the larger the scale of advance capital, especially the part of variable capital, the larger the amount of surplus value exploited, thereby facilitating an increase in the size of capital accumulation.

From the study of four factors that determine the size of capital accumulation, it can be concluded that in order to increase the scale of capital accumulation, it is necessary to make the best use of the social labor force and increase labor productivity. , make full use of the capacity of machinery and equipment and increase the scale of initial investment capital.

General law of capitalist accumulation

The contents of the general law of capitalist accumulation (a consequence of capital accumulation) are as follows:

a) The process of capital accumulation is the process of increasing the organic structure of capital

Capital exists in the form of matter and value. The structure of capital includes the technical structure and the value structure.

The technical structure of capital is the ratio of the mass of the means of production to the quantity of labor required to use those means of production. It manifests in the form of the amount of machinery, raw materials, and energy used by a worker in a given period of time. The technical structure reflects the characteristics and development level of the social productive forces.

The value structure of capital is the rate by which capital is divided into the constant capital (or the value of the means of production) and the variable capital (or the value of labor power) necessary to carry out production.

A change in the technical structure will cause the value structure to change. C. Marx used the category of organic structure of capital to indicate that relationship.

The organic structure of capital is the value structure of capital, which is determined by the technical structure and reflects the change of the technical structure of capital.

Due to the constant impact of scientific and technological progress, the organic structure of capital is also constantly changing towards increasing direction. This manifests itself in the fact that: the constant part of capital increases faster than the part of the variable capital, the constant capital increases absolutely and increases relative, and the variable capital can increase absolutely, but decrease. down relatively.

b) Capital accumulation is the process of increasing capital accumulation and concentration

Capital accumulation is the increase in the size of individual capital by the accumulation of individual capitalists. capital accumulation, one sideis the requirement of production expansion, application of technical progress; on the other handthe volume of surplus value increases again creates the possibility of stronger capital accumulation.

Concentration of capital is the consolidation of a number of small capitals into a single large capital. This is the concentration of already formed capitals, the abolition of their separate independence, the transformation of many small capitals into a few larger ones.

The accumulation of capital causes individual capital to increase, and so does social capital. Concentration of capital only increases the size of individual capital, while social capital remains the same.

c) The process of capital accumulation is the process of impoverishment of the proletariat

The organic structure of capital is increasing, causing the relative demand for labor power to tend to decrease. That is the main cause of the relative overpopulation.

There are three types of redundant demographics:

  • Mobile surplus population This is the type of worker who is laid off in one factory, but finds a job in another. In general, this number just lost jobs one at a time.
  • Potentially redundant demographics is the surplus population in agriculture – that is, the poor in the countryside, lacking jobs and unable to find jobs in industry, have to live in dire straits.
  • People superfluous cease stagnation are people who are almost always unemployed, only occasionally find temporary jobs with cheap wages, live on the streets, forming the bottom class of society.

Unemployment has led the working class to impoverishment. Poverty exists in two forms:

Absolute impoverishment of the working class manifested in a reduced standard of living. This decline occurs not only in the case of an absolute decline in private consumption, but also when private consumption increases, but the increase is slower than the increase in demand due to the higher cost of labor.

The standard of living of workers has fallen not only because of falling real wages, but also because of the decline of all conditions related to their material and spiritual life such as unemployment – ​​a threat. constant, anxiety for tomorrow, social insecurity.

Relative impoverishment The working class manifests itself in the decreasing proportion of the income of the working class in the national income, while the share of the income of the bourgeoisie is increasing.

In this place, at this moment, this part of impoverishment manifests itself clearly; meanwhile, in other places, at other times, in other parts, the impoverishment is not so obvious. It is the struggle of the working class that “puts the limit on the tyrannical appropriation of capital”.

Meaning and role

– To increase the capital scale, to have conditions for technical improvement, to apply scientific and technological achievements, to be able to win in competition.

– Understand and grasp the factors that increase the cumulative scale, thereby applying it in production and business to increase capital and use capital economically.

Increasing labor productivity is the most effective way to use capital (lowering the individual value, lowering the value of labor power, increasing capital accumulation, etc.)

– Increase depreciation of means of production, avoid invisible wear and tear, greatly increase production capital accumulation and effective use of means of production.

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(Last Updated On: 07/06/2022 by Lytuong.net)

What is capital accumulation? The nature, role and consequences of capital accumulation. Factors affecting the scale of capital accumulation.

1. The essence and motives of capital accumulation

Simple reproduction is not the typical form of capitalism, but its typical form is extended reproduction. Capitalist expanded reproduction is the repetition of production on a larger scale than before, with a larger capital than before. To do so, a part of surplus value must be transformed into additional capital.

The use of surplus value as capital or the transformation of surplus value back into capital is called capital accumulation. Thus, the essence of capital accumulation is the capitalization of surplus value. Specifically, capital accumulation is the reproduction of capital on an ever-expanding scale. The reason surplus value can be transformed into capital is because surplus value already has the material elements of new capital.

The transformation of a part of surplus value back into capital is called capital accumulation.

The expansion of capitalist accumulation and reproduction can be illustrated by the example: the first year the scale of production is 80c + 20v + 20m. Assume 20m is not all consumed by the capitalist for personal use, but is divided into 10m for accumulation and 10m for private consumption by the capitalist. The 10 m portion used for accumulation is divided into 8c + 2v, then next year's production scale will be 88c + 22v + 22m (if m remains the same). Thus, in the second year, the size of the constant capital and the variable capital both increase, and the surplus value also increases accordingly.

The study of capitalism's expansion of accumulation and reproduction allows to draw conclusions that more clearly delineate the exploitative nature of capitalist relations of production:

- One is, the sole source of accumulated capital is surplus value, and accumulated capital accounts for an increasingly larger proportion of all capital. Marx said that advance capital is just a drop in the river of accumulation. In the process of reproduction, interest (m) keeps hitting capital, the larger the capital, the greater the profit, so the worker's labor in the past became a means to exploit the worker himself.

– Two is, the process of accumulation has transformed property rights in the commodity economy into capitalist appropriation. In the production of simple commodities, the exchange between the producers of the commodity on the principle of parity does not essentially lead to one appropriating the unpaid labor of the other. On the contrary, capitalist production leads to the result that the capitalist not only appropriates a part of the worker's labor, but is also the legal owner of that unpaid labor. But that does not violate the law of value.

The impetus for accumulation and extended reproduction is the absolute economic law of capitalism - the law of surplus value, which states that the capitalist's production goal is value and the add value. For that purpose, capitalists are constantly accumulating to expand production, seeing it as a basic means to intensify the exploitation of wage workers.

On the other hand, competition forces capitalists to continuously increase their capital by rapidly increasing accumulated capital.

2. Factors affecting the scale of capital accumulation

For a given quantity of surplus-value, the size of capital accumulation depends on the ratio of the division of that surplus-value into the capitalist's accumulation and consumption funds, but if the If that division is determined, the size of capital accumulation depends on the amount of surplus value. Therefore, the factors affecting the volume of surplus value are also the factors that determine the size of capital accumulation. Those factors are:

-The level of exploitation of surplus value

Capitalists raise the level of exploitation of labor by undercutting wages. In studying the production of surplus value, Marx assumed that the exchange between workers and capitalists was an exchange of parity, that is, wages equal to the value of labor power. But in reality, workers are not only appropriation of surplus labor by the capitalist, but also of a necessary part of labor, i.e., withholding wages, in order to increase capital accumulation.

The capitalists also raise the level of exploitation of labor power by increasing the intensity of labor and prolonging the working day to increase the volume of surplus value, thereby increasing capital accumulation. The advantage here is also reflected in the fact that the capitalist does not need to advance more capital to buy more machinery and equipment, but only needs to advance capital to buy more raw materials to be able to increase the volume of production and make full use of it. capacity of machinery and equipment, should reduce invisible wear and tear and maintenance costs of machinery and equipment.

– Social Labor Productivity Level

As the social labor productivity increases, the prices of the means of production and the means of consumption decrease. This reduction has two consequences for accumulation: one iswith a certain amount of surplus value, the part devoted to accumulation may encroach on the consumption part, while the consumption of the capitalist does not decrease but can still be equal to or higher than before; two isa certain amount of surplus value for accumulation can also be transformed into a larger volume of means of production and additional labor power than before.

The progress of science and technology has created many additional factors for accumulation through the use of new materials and created new uses for existing materials as wastes in production and consumption. individuals of society, things that have no inherent value. Final, Increasing labor productivity will cause the value of old capital to reappear in a new useful form as quickly as possible.

– The growing disparity between using capital and consumer capital

In the production process, labor materials (machinery, equipment) are fully involved in the production process, but they only wear out gradually, so their value is gradually transferred to the product. So there is a difference between using capital and consuming capital. Although it has gradually lost its value, the machine will still have the same effect as it did when it had enough value during its lifetime. Therefore, excluding the part of the value of the machine transferred to the product from time to time, the machine serving for free is no different from a force of nature.

The more modern the machinery and equipment, the greater the gap between the capital used and the capital consumed, so the greater the unpaid service of the machine, the more capitalist can take advantage of the achievements of labor. the past more. That unpaid service of past labor is due to living labor taking hold and making them work. They are accumulated with the increasing scale of capital accumulation. This can be illustrated with the following data:

Machine generation Machine value (million USD) Product production capacity (million units) Depreciation per product (USD) Difference between capital in use and capital in consumption (USD) Accumulation capacity increased compared to the 1 generation machine
I ten first ten 9,99,990
II 14 2 7 13,999,993 2 million SP x (10 – 7) = 6 million USD
III 18 3 6 17,999,994 3 million SP x (10 – 6) = 12 million USD

– Scale of advance capital

With the level of exploitation unchanged, the amount of surplus value is determined by the volume of variable capital. Therefore, the larger the scale of advance capital, especially the part of variable capital, the larger the amount of surplus value exploited, thereby facilitating an increase in the size of capital accumulation.

From the study of four factors that determine the size of capital accumulation, it can be concluded that in order to increase the scale of capital accumulation, it is necessary to make the best use of the social labor force and increase labor productivity. , make full use of the capacity of machinery and equipment and increase the scale of initial investment capital.

General law of capitalist accumulation

The contents of the general law of capitalist accumulation (a consequence of capital accumulation) are as follows:

a) The process of capital accumulation is the process of increasing the organic structure of capital

Capital exists in the form of matter and value. The structure of capital includes the technical structure and the value structure.

The technical structure of capital is the ratio of the mass of the means of production to the quantity of labor required to use those means of production. It manifests in the form of the amount of machinery, raw materials, and energy used by a worker in a given period of time. The technical structure reflects the characteristics and development level of the social productive forces.

The value structure of capital is the rate by which capital is divided into the constant capital (or the value of the means of production) and the variable capital (or the value of labor power) necessary to carry out production.

A change in the technical structure will cause the value structure to change. C. Marx used the category of organic structure of capital to indicate that relationship.

The organic structure of capital is the value structure of capital, which is determined by the technical structure and reflects the change of the technical structure of capital.

Due to the constant impact of scientific and technological progress, the organic structure of capital is also constantly changing towards increasing direction. This manifests itself in the fact that: the constant part of capital increases faster than the part of the variable capital, the constant capital increases absolutely and increases relative, and the variable capital can increase absolutely, but decrease. down relatively.

b) Capital accumulation is the process of increasing capital accumulation and concentration

Capital accumulation is the increase in the size of individual capital by the accumulation of individual capitalists. capital accumulation, one sideis the requirement of production expansion, application of technical progress; on the other handthe volume of surplus value increases again creates the possibility of stronger capital accumulation.

Concentration of capital is the consolidation of a number of small capitals into a single large capital. This is the concentration of already formed capitals, the abolition of their separate independence, the transformation of many small capitals into a few larger ones.

The accumulation of capital causes individual capital to increase, and so does social capital. Concentration of capital only increases the size of individual capital, while social capital remains the same.

c) The process of capital accumulation is the process of impoverishment of the proletariat

The organic structure of capital is increasing, causing the relative demand for labor power to tend to decrease. That is the main cause of the relative overpopulation.

There are three types of redundant demographics:

  • Mobile surplus population This is the type of worker who is laid off in one factory, but finds a job in another. In general, this number just lost jobs one at a time.
  • Potentially redundant demographics is the surplus population in agriculture – that is, the poor in the countryside, lacking jobs and unable to find jobs in industry, have to live in dire straits.
  • People superfluous cease stagnation are people who are almost always unemployed, only occasionally find temporary jobs with cheap wages, live on the streets, forming the bottom class of society.

Unemployment has led the working class to impoverishment. Poverty exists in two forms:

Absolute impoverishment of the working class manifested in a reduced standard of living. This decline occurs not only in the case of an absolute decline in private consumption, but also when private consumption increases, but the increase is slower than the increase in demand due to the higher cost of labor.

The standard of living of workers has fallen not only because of falling real wages, but also because of the decline of all conditions related to their material and spiritual life such as unemployment – ​​a threat. constant, anxiety for tomorrow, social insecurity.

Relative impoverishment The working class manifests itself in the decreasing proportion of the income of the working class in the national income, while the share of the income of the bourgeoisie is increasing.

In this place, at this moment, this part of impoverishment manifests itself clearly; meanwhile, in other places, at other times, in other parts, the impoverishment is not so obvious. It is the struggle of the working class that "puts the limit on the tyrannical appropriation of capital".

Meaning and role

- To increase the capital scale, to have conditions for technical improvement, to apply scientific and technological achievements, to be able to win in competition.

– Understand and grasp the factors that increase the cumulative scale, thereby applying it in production and business to increase capital and use capital economically.

Increasing labor productivity is the most effective way to use capital (lowering the individual value, lowering the value of labor power, increasing capital accumulation, etc.)

– Increase depreciation of means of production, avoid invisible wear and tear, greatly increase production capital accumulation and effective use of means of production.

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